Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook


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The Guidelines will promote consistency in the Agency's assessment of toxic effects on the male and female nonpregnant and pregnant reproductive systems, including outcomes of pregnancy and lactation, and inform others of approaches that the Agency will use in assessing those risks. Washington, D. October 4, Federal Register -- These proposed Guidelines provide Agency scientists and the public with a foundation for developing scientific principles, concepts, and methods to evaluate environmental contaminants that pose neurotoxic risks.

The Guidelines describe the scientific basis for evaluating neurotoxic effects due to exposure to chemical agents, provide principles and methods for evaluating data from human and animal studies including adverse effects to neurological development and function in infants and children, provide guidance on characterizing the health-related data base for neurotoxicity risk assessment, and describe methods for calculating reference doses RfDs or reference concentrations RfCs when neurotoxicity is the critical effect.

National Research Council.

Hazardous Waste Legislation & Regulations

To order a copy of this document, contact the National Academy Press at Guidance is given on appropriate methods and data. Its primary purpose is to offer a simple, flexible structure for conducting and evaluating ecological risk assessment within EPA. Although the Framework Report will serve as a foundation for development of future subject-specific guidelines, it is neither a procedural guide nor a regulatory requirement within EPA and is expected to evolve with experience. The Framework Report is intended to foster consistent approaches to ecological risk assessment within EPA, identify key issues, and define terms used in these assessments.

September 9, Federal Register 61 : , The Proposed Guidelines are being developed to improve the quality of and consistency among EPA's ecological risk assessments. As a next step in a continuing process of ecological risk guidance development, the Proposed Guidelines expand upon the widely-used EPA report Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment. Ecological risk assessment is a process for organizing and analyzing data, information, assumptions, and uncertainties to evaluate the likelihood that one or more stressors are causing or will cause adverse ecological effects.

Ecological risk assessment provides risk managers with a tool for considering available scientific information when selecting a course of action, in addition to other factors e. A major theme of the Proposed Guidelines is the interaction between risk assessors and risk managers at the beginning and end of the risk assessment process. In problem formulation, the Proposed Guidelines emphasize the complementary roles of assessors and managers in determining the scope and boundaries of the assessment and selecting endpoints that will be the focus of the assessment. The risk characterization section discusses estimating, interpreting, and reporting risks and applies an ecological perspective to recent Agency policy encouraging clear, transparent, reasonable, and consistent risk characterizations.

Hazardous Waste Storage | Vanderbilt Environmental Health and Safety

The interface between risk assessors and risk managers is critical for ensuring that the results of the assessment can be used to support a management decision. With identification of potentially hazardous waste streams and possible resulting contamination, sampling is required to determine the extent of contamination. The following EPA documents provide hazardous waste sampling information:. Discussions of extractive sampling techniques and in situ methods are presented, along with explanations of the analytical techniques used in currently marketed instrumentation.

Methods for monitoring opacity, pollutant gases, and combustion gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide are described. Well development, hydraulic performance and purging strategy are discussed along with quality assurance. The Guide also recommends sampling protocols. After collection of representative waste or receiving stream samples comes the need for proper analysis.

The following EPA documents provide hazardous waste analysis information:. Laboratory and field methods are given. Ordering information is also available on EPA's web site at:. It provides test procedures for the measurement of physical, inorganic, and selected organic constituents and parameters. Proper management is needed to minimize the risks posed by hazardous wastes. Among the options for reducing the risk level are:. Underground storage tanks USTs are tanks that are located at least partially underground and designed to hold gasoline or other petroleum products or hazardous substances.

The most common causes of petroleum or hazardous substance releases from USTs are tank corrosion, corroded or failed piping, spills, and overfills.

Releases can lead to fires, explosion, seepage of toxic fumes into homes and businesses, and contamination of groundwater--an important source of drinking water for nearly half of all Americans. These releases may contain substances that threaten human health and the environment, such as benzene, a known carcinogen. EPA regulations cover approximately 1. Most of these storage tanks contain petroleum, and approximately 30, hold hazardous substances subject to EPA regulations.

The following technical report provides information on hazardous waste storage issues aside from underground storage tanks:. Check lists are included.

Hazardous Waste

Every effort should be made to apply good housekeeping to an industrial process and minimize the need for resources, be they electricity or other fuel and water, land and air. Where possible, wastes should be reused as a resource in the parent process, a companion one, or in another industrial process.


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The following EPA publications provide basic information on pollution prevention programs for industry:. Sections included are: planning and organization, assessment phase, methods for evaluating options and implementation. A sample assessment is presented, and worksheets are included for carrying out an assessment. EPA's Green Chemistry Program can also serve as a valuable guide for the minimization of hazardous wastes.

Green Chemistry is the design, manufacture, and use of environmentally benign chemical products and processes that prevent pollution and reduce environmental and human health risks. The Green Chemistry Program recognizes and supports fundamental and innovative chemical technologies that are cost-effective, useful to industry, and prevent pollution. Information on the Program is available on EPA's web site at:. CLU-In allows hazardous waste cleanup professionals to communicate and exchange information.

It also contains a variety of information about site remediation that is accessible in computer files or databases. The telnet address is clu-in. Voice help is available by calling The SITE Demonstration Program encourages the development and implementation of 1 innovative treatment technologies for hazardous waste site remediation and 2 monitoring and measurement. Engineering and cost data are gathered on the innovative technology so that potential users can assess the technology's applicability to a particular site.

Data collected during the field demonstration are used to assess the performance of the technology, the potential need for pre- and post-processing of the waste, applicable types of wastes and waste matrices, potential operating problems, and approximate capital and operating costs.

These reports evaluate all available information on the technology and analyze its overall applicability to other site characteristics, waste types, and waste matrices. Testing procedures, performance and cost data, and quality assurance and quality standards are also presented. Additional information on SITE can be found at the following address:. In addition to EPA's web site, refer to the following documents for information on remedy selection at hazardous waste sites and on hazardous waste treatment and site characterization technologies:.

An introduction to pump-and-treat ground-water remediation, the guide addresses the following questions: When is pump-and-treat an appropriate remediation approach? What is involved in "smart" application of the pump-and-treat approach? What are tailing and rebound, and how can they be anticipated?

Hazardous Materials Removal Workers

What are the recommended methods for meeting the challenges of effective hydraulic containment? How can the design and operation of a pump-and-treat system be optimized and its performance measured? When should variations and alternatives to conventional pump-and-treat methods be used? EPASW Hazardous Waste Land Treatment, Revised Edition -- This document is a practical reference for people involved in design and design review, beginning with site selection and waste characterization and progressing through facility design, operation, and closure.

Information on the fate of both inorganic and organic compounds in the soil environment is included and provides a basis for developing treatment demonstrations. Non-hazardous waste constituents are also discussed because they are likely to be important to the overall design and management of facilities. Waste site interactions that affect treatment processes are discussed as well as laboratory, greenhouse, and field testing protocols for assessing land treatment performance.

Methods for calculating loading rates and determining limiting constituents are presented. Plot layout, water control, erosion control, management of soil pH and fertility, vegetation establishment, waste storage facilities, waste application methods and equipment, site inspection, and record-keeping requirements are discussed.

Work Environment

Monitoring procedures for waste, soil cores, soil-pore liquids, runoff water, ground water, and vegetation are also presented. Treatability screening studies were conducted to determine degradation rates, partition coefficients among air, water, soil and oil phases, and transformation characteristics. The quantitative information developed for a subset of the tested chemicals was input into two mathematical models specifically designed to describe the soil treatment process. Included are the use of clay liners, material and design considerations for flexible membrane liners, liquid management including leachate collection and removal, leak detection, collection and removal, and the surface water collection system; and the elements of a closure system for a completed landfill including flexible membrane caps, surface water collection and removal, gas control, and others.

This document provides guidance in design, construction, and evaluation requirements for proper selection of cover systems for both hazardous and nonhazardous waste landfills.


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  • Chapters are included on soils used in cover systems, geosynthetic design for landfill covers, alternative cover designs, construction quality assurance for soils and geomembranes, evaluation of different liquid management systems, gas management systems, postclosure monitoring and case studies. Included are procedures for process monitoring, sampling, and analysis for both the initial trial burn and for continuing operation of the incineration facility. Pollutant categories discussed are: principal organic hazardous constituents, metals, particulates, acid gases, and combustion gases.

    Incineration continues to be an attractive infectious waste disposal option for hospitals encountering high disposal costs, refusal of their waste at treatment and disposal facilities and tighter regulation. Proper incineration sterilizes pathogenic waste, reduces waste volumes by over 90 percent, and, in some cases, may provide economic benefits through waste heat recovery.

    This document identifies the operation and maintenance procedures that should be practiced on hospital waste incinerators and associated air pollution control equipment to minimize air emissions, improve equipment reliability and performance, prolong equipment life, and help to ensure proper ash burnout. This newsletter provides a current listing of scheduled workshops, conferences, and seminars from EPA's Office of Research and Development.

    It also announces the availability of new publications, reports, databases, and expert systems. A publication order sheet is included. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. The on-line version contains links to selected EPA software, technology transfer publications and reports. It also allows users to add their names to a mailing list for either the paper or electronic version of the newsletter.

    To access the on-line version of "Highlights", use the following address:. The system includes:. Please note that FTP and Telnet require you to have the appropriate client-side software. Check with your local network administrator. The Integrated Risk Information System IRIS contains summaries of chronic human health risk information that represents EPA consensus opinion on the potential adverse health effects for approximately chemicals and other agents. IRIS risk information includes summary sections on potential non-cancer effects resulting from oral and inhalation exposure oral reference dose and inhalation reference concentration, respectively and summaries of carcinogenicity risk information.

    IRIS is a useful initial resource for hazard identification and dose-response information and for directing the user to the underlying data on which the information is based. Environmental scientists and engineers are becoming overwhelmed by an increasing number of guidance documents and software products.

    About the Book

    People in the private sector, academia, and government are looking for convenient sources for this information. Integration of information for one particular facet of hazardous waste site investigations was a goal in the development of a "site characterization" CD-ROM by the U.

    A prototype CD-ROM was developed to determine whether electronic-versions of guidance documents and related software would be a valuable aid to environmental professionals in the complex, multi-disciplinary process used to characterize hazardous waste sites.

    Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook
    Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook
    Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook
    Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook
    Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook
    Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook
    Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook
    Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook
    Environmental hazards: toxic waste and hazardous material : a reference handbook

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